There are two ways E-bomb will couple energy into targets: Frontdoor and backdoor coupling. The first will couple via antennas on mobile or wireless devices. The second way, it will not only couple via network cables, mains power wiring and telephone wiring. It will enter via cooling grilles and air gaps in computer or other electronic equipment chassis, too. This electrical damage effects occur to semiconductor components once the energy is coupled into an electronic device or computer.
Here are stated devices that are susceptible to EMP damage in decreasing vulnerability:
1. Integrated circuits (ICs), CPUs, silicon chips.
3. Vacuum tubes (also known as thermionic valves).
4. Inductors, electric motors.
In comparison between transistor technology and old vacuum equipment: The former is likely to fail, but the latter will survive. The failure probability of transistor technology due to E-bomb however, varies between the types, in specific its sensitivity to electromagnetism. Power surge would happen easier to FETs, especially MOSFETs than bipolar ICs and transistors which are much less sensitive than them.
Several ways could be applied to protect sensitive electronics equipments. Faraday cage is a commonly known solution, but only with some makeshift. A cage would be rendered useless if any conductors passed through, such as power cords or antennas. Else, optical fibres could be used as a replacement of copper information cabling infrastructure. However it is not done widely due to bureaucracies of the government and corporate variety. Adopting an electromagnetic hardening standard for industrial and commercial electronic and computer equipment would also have a huge impact - with the highly desirable collateral effect of reducing the electromagnetic interference emitted by such equipment.
Talking about modern warfare, a number of important combat missions could be accomplished in various levels of attack without causing many direct casualties by applying an effective E-bomb. It could neutralize electronic-dependent weapon and machinery, which include:
· vehicle control systems
· targeting systems, on the ground and on missiles and bombs
· communications systems
· navigation systems
· long and short-range sensor systems
The United States’ army is the leading edge of modern warfare. Recently in this decade the U.S. military has added sophisticated electronics to the full range of its arsenal. Ironically, EMP attack could be a cruel nightmare. The electronic technology in use is dependent on consumer-grade semiconductor devices. They are highly sensitive to any power surge. Thus it could affect U.S forces operations significantly due to its high vulnerability. 'The one thing that makes me lose sleep is an E-bomb, an EMP', as commented by US Air Force strategist Col Gail Wojtowicz at a Pentagon briefing.
In any country, a pervasive EMP assault would downgrade a military's ability to put itself in order. Only functioning non-electric weapons (like machine guns) would be available to ground troops, but they would not have usable electronic equipment to plan an attack or locate the enemy. Therefore, an EMP attack effectively reduces any military unit into a guerilla-type army.
EMP weapons could be especially useful in some cases, such as in Iraq. Its pulse might effectively neutralize underground bunkers. Due to the physical condition, most Iraq's underground bunkers are unreachable with conventional bombs and missiles. But using a nuclear blast would cost a shocking charge on surrounding areas, though it could effectively destroy loads of bunkers. An electromagnetic pulse could penetrate the ground, disabling the bunker's lights, ventilation systems, communication – most crucial, electric doors. As result, the bunker would be completely uninhabitable.
EMP technology draws attention because it is potentially non-fatal, but is still vastly destructive. An E-bomb attack would leave buildings standing and spare lives, but it could destroy a considerable military. These weapons are not directly responsible for the loss of lives, but if an EMP knocked out a hospital's electricity, for example, any patient on life support would die immediately.
In the end, the most sweeping effect of an e-bomb could be psychological. A full-scale EMP attack in a developed country would immediately bring modern life to halt. Plenty of survivors would be alive. But a very different world they would experience. An effectively large scale E-bomb or EMP assault may topple a country to the pre-electronic era.